A retaining wall design is a structured plan on building retaining walls to restrain soil and other loose material where sudden changes in ground elevation may occur due to environmental factors. The material which was held back by the structure may exert an effort towards the wall where it may overturn or slide it. The most usual type of retaining the wall is the cantilever where it is used for walls that have height ranges of 10 to 25ft. The cantilever beam will compose of the stem, heel and toe of the wall.
A retaining wall design calculates the soil bearing pressure under the foot of a cantilever concrete retaining wall sustaining any type of backfill material with extra loads and condensed peripheral masses staging on the wall.
The retaining plan for walls also includes proper examination of the strength of the entire structure of the wall and then the actual design is executed, either based on the Working Stress Design Method of the ultimate strength design method of ACI or the lateral pressure designed by any of the Rankine or Coulomb theory. The Seismic design is according to the Mononobe-Okabe approach. The wall plans will also consider the possibility sliding of the entire construction. This should be taken into account as the possibility may cause malfunction of the wall.
The necessary input data embraces all wall measurements, backfill slope, concrete and steel concentration, admissible soil bearing load, and backfill properties. The wall plan will alternatively make an allowance for additional peripheral loads applied to the wall, and replacing the pressure. A surcharge may possibly be defined as an equal height of the block. Deep loads might also be used on walls. This is for the most part functional in the design of bridge abutments wherein beams or girders reactions have to be used with support.
All data are necessary to compute the right dimensions in coming up with the wall layout. Designers and engineers will go through in depth research, geographical measurements and critical thinking so that retaining walls are built with quality and durability that is able to stand the assumed environmental conditions that may affect the wall structure. Tools are used to computer the highest soil pressure that is under the toe and heel of the wall and it is compared to a tolerable soil pressure. The safety factor to avoid sliding is then increased according to the comparisons.
The procedure in creating a retaining plan for walls should not be taken for granted. It is critical that the right dimension and calculations are determined so that the right materials are assessed and used for a better retaining wall. A quality retaining wall is able to withstand allowable pressure to prevent unwanted damages. This could be achievable with the right retaining wall design.